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Muscle biopsy

What is a muscle biopsy for children and adults? Muscle biopsy means a sample is taken from a muscle by local anesthesia, which can be through open muscle biopsy or through needle biopsy. Then after freezing in liquid nitrogen, the muscle sample is sliced with a special machine, stained and examined with a microscope in order to diagnose the type of muscle disease.

What disease requires a muscle biopsy? Muscle biopsy is necessary in children and adults who have progressive weakness of skeletal and smooth muscles, and EMG shows a neuromuscular disease in order to make the definitive diagnosis of the muscle disease including an inherited disease such as muscular dystrophy or inflammatory disease. Furthermore, definitive diagnosis of some metabolic diseases such as mitochondrial abnormalities can be made by muscle biopsy. After a muscle biopsy for the diagnosis the type of muscle disease, Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh (Neurology fellowship in Tehran and Neuromuscular Fellowship from Japan) assesses and reports muscle tissue by light and immunofluorescence microscopes.

Can adults also visit Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh for muscle biopsy in Tehran? Yes, Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh completed Neuromuscular Fellowship in Japan in the field of diagnosis of pediatric and adolescent muscle diseases and his fellowship certificate has been approved and registered in the Ministry of Health in Iran.

Does Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh stain muscle biopsies with specific stains in Iran? Yes, muscle biopsies from children and adults are stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), Gomori, Oil. Red .O, ATPase, PAS, SDH, NADH as well as immunohistochemical staining protocols for dystrophin, sarcoglycan, dystroglycan, dysferlin, merosin, caveolin-3, and collagen VI  by Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh.