Electromyography

Electromyography

What is electromyography used for?

If a child has any symptoms of limb weakness, inability to walk, inability to climb stairs or ladders, limp, pain in different parts of the body, fatigue, tingling, paresthesia and numbness, it should be done.

How is EMG performed in Tehran? EMG in Iran consists of two separate tests, nerve conduction study and another for muscle function study. The Nerve Conduction Study helps understand the function of the nerves in the body. To perform the Nerve Conduction Study, the device applies electrical stimulation to a child’s nerves and records the neural response in the form of a nerve wave.

Muscle function study is performed to assess health of a muscle or nerves of that muscle. To do this test, a tiny needle is inserted into the muscle to record the electrical activity of the muscle. The type of wave generated on the monitor screen and the sound of the waveform are used to make the diagnosis.

What diseases does EMG diagnose? Nervous system disorders or neuropathies, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, as well as disorders of the junction of nerve fibers with muscles such as myasthenia gravis disease are diagnosed by EMG. A wide range of inherited and acquired diseases of the muscles such as muscle dystrophies, inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders and a variety of metabolic musculoskeletal disorders can also be diagnosed by EMG.

Where do you need to go if your sweet baby needs EMG?

Pediatric neurologist Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh in Tehran and the only neuromuscular disease fellowship in Iran (from Japan) performs EMG and muscle biopsy.

Pediatric neurology subspecialist, Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh in Tehran

Muscle biopsy

What is a muscle biopsy for children and adults? Muscle biopsy means a sample is taken from a muscle by local anesthesia, which can be through open muscle biopsy or through needle biopsy. Then after freezing in liquid nitrogen, the muscle sample is sliced with a special machine, stained and examined with a microscope in order to diagnose the type of muscle disease.

What disease requires a muscle biopsy? Muscle biopsy is necessary in children and adults who have progressive weakness of skeletal and smooth muscles, and EMG shows a neuromuscular disease in order to make the definitive diagnosis of the muscle disease including an inherited disease such as muscular dystrophy or inflammatory disease. Furthermore, definitive diagnosis of some metabolic diseases such as mitochondrial abnormalities can be made by muscle biopsy. After a muscle biopsy for the diagnosis the type of muscle disease, Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh (Neurology fellowship in Tehran and Neuromuscular Fellowship from Japan) assesses and reports muscle tissue by light and immunofluorescence microscopes.

Can adults also visit Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh for muscle biopsy in Tehran? Yes, Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh completed Neuromuscular Fellowship in Japan in the field of diagnosis of pediatric and adolescent muscle diseases and his fellowship certificate has been approved and registered in the Ministry of Health in Iran.

Does Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh stain muscle biopsies with specific stains in Iran? Yes, muscle biopsies from children and adults are stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), Gomori, Oil. Red .O, ATPase, PAS, SDH, NADH as well as immunohistochemical staining protocols for dystrophin, sarcoglycan, dystroglycan, dysferlin, merosin, caveolin-3, and collagen VI  by Dr. Mohammad Kazem Bakhshandeh.